(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
(IRS Employer Identification No.)

(Address of principal executive office) (Zip Code)
(607) 337-2265 (Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act: None

Securities registered pursuant to section 12(g) of the Act: Common Stock ($0. 01 par value per share)

Stock Purchase Rights Pursuant to Stockholders Rights Plan

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes T  No £

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act.  Yes £  No T

Indicate  by  check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to  be  filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the  preceding  12  months  (or  for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for  the  past  90  days.  Yes  T  No  £

Indicate  by  check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (Section 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will  not be contained, to the best of the registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy  or  information  statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form  10-K  or  any  amendment  to  this  Form  10-K.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer T
Accelerated filer £
Non-accelerated filer £
Smaller reporting company £

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). £ Yes   T No

Based on the closing price of the registrant’s common stock as of June 30, 2008, the aggregate market value of the voting stock, common stock, par value, $0.01 per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant is $655,866,020.

The number of shares of Common Stock outstanding as of February 15, 2009, was 32,648,164.

Portions  of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for its Annual Meeting  of Stockholders to be held on May 5, 2009 are incorporated by reference into  Part  III,  Items  10,  11,  12,  13  and  14  of  this  Form  10-K.



FORM 10-K – Year Ended December 31, 2008




Consolidated Financial Statements (See Item 8 for Reference).
Financial Statement Schedules normally required on Form 10-K are omitted since they are not applicable.
Refer to item 15(a)(3)above.
Refer to item 15(a)(2) above.

Information called for by Part III (Items 10 through 14) is incorporated by reference to the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2009 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.



NBT Bancorp Inc. (the “Registrant” or the “Company”) is a registered financial holding company incorporated in the state of Delaware in 1986, with its principal headquarters located in Norwich, New York. The Company, on a consolidated basis, at December 31, 2008 had assets of $5.3 billion and stockholders’ equity of $431.8 million. The Registrant is the parent holding company of NBT Bank, N.A. (the “Bank”), NBT Financial Services, Inc. (“NBT Financial”), NBT Holdings, Inc. (“NBT Holdings”), Hathaway Agency, Inc., CNBF Capital Trust I, NBT Statutory Trust I and NBT Statutory Trust II (the “Trusts”).  Through the Bank and NBT Financial, the Company is focused on community banking operations.  Through NBT Holdings, the Company operates Mang Insurance Agency, LLC, a full-service insurance agency.  The Trusts were organized to raise additional regulatory capital and to provide funding for certain acquisitions. The Registrant’s primary business consists of providing commercial banking and financial services to its customers in its market area. The principal assets of the Registrant are all of the outstanding shares of common stock of its direct subsidiaries, and its principal sources of revenue are the management fees and dividends it receives from the Bank, NBT Financial, and NBT Holdings.

The Bank is a full service commercial bank formed in 1856, which provides a broad range of financial products to individuals, corporations and municipalities throughout the central and upstate New York and northeastern Pennsylvania market areas. The Bank conducts business through two geographic operating divisions, NBT Bank and Pennstar Bank.

At year end 2008, the NBT Bank division had 84 divisional offices and 114 automated teller machines (ATMs), located primarily in central and upstate New York. At December 31, 2008, the NBT Bank division had total loans and leases of $2.9 billion and total deposits of $3.1 billion.

At year end 2008, the Pennstar Bank division had 38 divisional offices and 57 ATMs, located primarily in northeastern Pennsylvania. At December 31, 2008, the Pennstar Bank division had total loans and leases of $761.0 million and total deposits of $827.2 million.

The Bank has six operating subsidiaries, NBT Capital Corp., Pennstar Bank Services Company, Broad Street Property Associates, Inc., NBT Services, Inc., Pennstar Realty Trust, and CNB Realty Trust. NBT Capital Corp., formed in 1998, is a venture capital corporation formed to assist young businesses to develop and grow primarily in the markets they serve. Broad Street Property Associates, Inc., formed in 2004, is a property management company.  NBT Services, Inc., formed in 2004, has a 44% ownership interest in Land Record Services, LLC.  Land Record Services, LLC, a title insurance agency, offers mortgagee and owner’s title insurance coverage to both retail and commercial customers.  Pennstar Realty Trust, formed in 2000, and CNB Realty Trust, formed in 1998, are real estate investment trusts. Pennstar Bank Services Company, formed in 2002, provides administrative and support services to the Pennstar Bank division of the Bank.

CNBF Capital Trust I (Trust I) and NBT Statutory Trust I are Delaware statutory business trusts formed in 1999 and 2005, respectively, for the purpose of issuing trust preferred securities and lending the proceeds to the Company. In connection with the acquisition of CNB Bancorp, Inc. mentioned below, the Company formed NBT Statutory Trust II (Trust II) in February 2006 to fund the cash portion of the acquisition as well as to provide regulatory capital. The Company raised $51.5 million through Trust II in February 2006. The Company guarantees, on a limited basis, payments of distributions on the trust preferred securities and payments on redemption of the trust preferred securities. The Trusts are variable interest entities (VIEs) for which the Company is not the primary beneficiary, as defined in Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretation (“FIN”) No. 46 “Consolidation of Variable Interest Entities, an Interpretation of Accounting Research Bulletin No. 51 (Revised December 2003) (FIN 46R).” In accordance with FIN 46R, the accounts of the Trusts are not included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements. See the Company’s accounting policy related to consolidation in Note 1 — Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this report.  For more information relating to the Trusts, see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements.

On September 1, 2008, the Company completed the acquisition of Mang Insurance Agency, LLC (“Mang”), headquartered in Binghamton, New York.  As part of the acquisition, the Company acquired approximately $15.3 million of intangible assets and $11.8 million of goodwill, which has been allocated to NBT Holdings for reporting purposes.  The results of operations are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition, September 1, 2008.

On February 10, 2006, the Company acquired CNB Bancorp, Inc. (“CNB”), a bank holding company headquartered in Gloversville, New York. The acquisition was accomplished by merging CNB with and into the Company. By virtue of this acquisition, CNB’s banking subsidiary, City National Bank and Trust Company, was merged with and into NBT Bank.  City National Bank and Trust Company operated 9 full-service community banking offices – located in Fulton, Hamilton, Montgomery and Saratoga counties, with approximately $400 million in assets.  In connection with the merger with CNB, the Company issued an aggregate of 2.1 million shares of Company common stock and $39 million in cash to the former holders of CNB common stock.  Based on the $22.42 per share closing price of the Company’s common stock on February 10, 2006, the transaction was valued at approximately $88 million.

CNB nonqualified stock options, entitling holders to purchase CNB common stock outstanding, were cancelled on the closing date and such option holders received an option payment subject to the terms of the merger agreement. The total number of CNB nonqualified stock options that were canceled was 103,545, which resulted in a cash payment to option holders before any applicable federal or state withholding tax, of approximately $1.3 million. In accordance with the terms of the merger agreement, all outstanding CNB incentive stock options as of the effective date were assumed by the Company.  At that time, there were 144,686 CNB incentive stock options that were exchanged for 237,278 replacement incentive stock options of the Company.  All CNB incentive stock options were converted to nonqualified stock options.

The banking and financial services industry in New York and Pennsylvania generally, and in the Company’s market areas specifically, is highly competitive. The increasingly competitive environment is the result of changes in regulation, changes in technology and product delivery systems, additional financial service providers, and the accelerating pace of consolidation among financial services providers. The Company competes for loans and leases, deposits, and customers with other commercial banks, savings and loan associations, securities and brokerage companies, mortgage companies, insurance companies, finance companies, money market funds, credit unions, and other nonbank financial service providers. Many of these competitors are much larger in total assets and capitalization, have greater access to capital markets and offer a broader range of financial services than the Company. In order to compete with other financial services providers, the Company stresses the community nature of its banking operations and principally relies upon local promotional activities, personal relationships established by officers, directors, and employees with their customers, and specialized services tailored to meet the needs of the communities served.

As a bank holding company, the Company is subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and examination by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“FRS”) as its primary federal regulator. The Company also has qualified for and elected to be registered with the FRS as a financial holding company. The Bank, as a nationally chartered bank, is subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (“OCC”) as its primary federal regulator and, as to certain matters, by the FRS and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”).

The Company is subject to capital adequacy guidelines of the FRS. The guidelines apply on a consolidated basis and require bank holding companies to maintain a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to total average assets (or “leverage ratio”) of 4%. For the most highly rated bank holding companies, the minimum ratio is 3%. The FRS capital adequacy guidelines also require bank holding companies to maintain a minimum ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets of 4% and a minimum ratio of qualifying total capital to risk-weighted assets of 8%. As of December 31, 2008, the Company’s leverage ratio was 7.17%, its ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets was 9.75%, and its ratio of qualifying total capital to risk-weighted assets was 11.00%. The FRS may set higher minimum capital requirements for bank holding companies whose circumstances warrant it, such as companies anticipating significant growth or facing unusual risks. The FRS has not advised the Company of any special capital requirement applicable to it.

Any holding company whose capital does not meet the minimum capital adequacy guidelines is considered to be undercapitalized and is required to submit an acceptable plan to the FRS for achieving capital adequacy. Such a company’s ability to pay dividends to its shareholders and expand its lines of business through the acquisition of new banking or nonbanking subsidiaries also could be restricted.

The Bank is subject to leverage and risk-based capital requirements and minimum capital guidelines of the OCC that are similar to those applicable to the Company. As of December 31, 2008, the Bank was in compliance with all minimum capital requirements. The Bank’s leverage ratio was 6.93%, its ratio of Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets was 9.38%, and its ratio of qualifying total capital to risk-weighted assets was 10.64%.

Under FDIC regulations, no FDIC-insured bank can accept brokered deposits unless it is well capitalized, or is adequately capitalized and receives a waiver from the FDIC. In addition, these regulations prohibit any bank that is not well capitalized from paying an interest rate on brokered deposits in excess of three-quarters of one percentage point over certain prevailing market rates. As of December 31, 2008, the Bank’s total brokered deposits were $269.8 million.

The Bank also is subject to substantial regulatory restrictions on its ability to pay dividends to the Company. Under OCC regulations, the Bank may not pay a dividend, without prior OCC approval, if the total amount of all dividends declared during the calendar year, including the proposed dividend, exceed the sum of its retained net income to date during the calendar year and its retained net income over the preceding two years. As of December 31, 2008, approximately $46.6 million was available for the payment of dividends without prior OCC approval. The Bank’s ability to pay dividends is also subject to the Bank being in compliance with regulatory capital requirements. As indicated above, the Bank is currently in compliance with these requirements.

The OCC generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distributions (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its parent holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. Undercapitalized institutions are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. If a depository institution fails to submit an acceptable capital restoration plan, it is treated as if it is “significantly undercapitalized.” Significantly undercapitalized depository institutions may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient voting stock to become “adequately capitalized,” requirements to reduce total assets, and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. “Critically undercapitalized” institutions are subject to the appointment of a receiver or conservator.

The deposits of the Bank are insured up to regulatory limits by the FDIC. The Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Act of 2005 gave the FDIC increased flexibility in assessing premiums on banks and savings associations, including the Bank, to pay for deposit insurance and in managing its deposit insurance reserves. The FDIC has adopted regulations to implement its new authority.  Under these regulations, all insured depository institutions are placed into one of four risk categories.  The Bank is in Risk Category I, the most favorable category.  As of January 1, 2009, all insured institutions within this category will pay a base rate assessment of $0.12 to $0.50 per $100 of deposits for the first quarter of 2009 of assessable deposits based on the risk of loss to the Depository Insurance Fund (“DIF”) posed by the particular institution.  Institutions, such as the Bank, in risk Category I will be assessed within a range of $0.12 to $0.14 per $100 of deposits for the first quarter of 2009.  This is a substantial increase from the base rate assessment of $0.02 to $0.04 per $100 of assessable deposits that was in effect during 2008.  The increase in the base rate assessment from 2008 to 2009 is due to the financial crises affecting the banking system and financial markets.  For institutions such as the Bank, which do not have a long-term public debt rating, the individual risk assessment is based on its supervisory ratings and certain financial ratios and other measurements of its financial condition.  For institutions that have a long-term public debt rating, the individual risk assessment is based on its supervisory ratings and its debt rating. On February 27, 2009, the FDIC issued new rules to take effect April 1, 2009 to change the way the FDIC differentiates risk and appropriate assessment rates. Base assessment rates set to take effect on April 1, 2009 will range from 12 to 45 basis points, but giving effect to certain risk adjustments in the rule issued by the FDIC on February 27, 2009, assessments may range from 7 to 77.5 basis points. For institutions such as the Bank, in Risk Category I, risk-adjusted assessments will range from 7 to 24 basis points. In addition, the FDIC also issued an interim rule on February 27, 2009 that will impose an emergency special assessment of 20 basis points in addition to its risk-based assessment. This assessment will be imposed on June 30, 2009 and collected on September 30, 2009. The reform legislation also provided a credit to all insured depository institutions, based on the amount of their insured deposits at year-end 1996, that may be used as an offset to the premiums that are assessed.  The Bank’s credit was fully utilized in 2008 to offset its 2008 deposit insurance assessment. Due to the full utilization of the Bank’s credit, the systemic increase in deposit insurance assessments and the emergency special assessment, the Bank will be subject to increased deposit premium expenses in future periods.

On October 14, 2008, the FDIC announced a new program, the Temporary Liquidity Guarantee Program (“TLGP”), that provides unlimited deposit insurance on funds invested in noninterest-bearing transaction deposit accounts in excess of the existing deposit insurance limit of $250,000.  Participating institutions will be assessed a $0.10 surcharge per $100 of deposits above the existing deposit insurance limit. The TLGP also provides that the FDIC, for an additional fee, will guarantee qualifying senior unsecured debt issued prior to October 2009 by participating banks and certain qualifying holding companies.  The Bank and the Company have elected to opt in to both portions of the TLGP.

The Federal Deposit Insurance Act provides for additional assessments to be imposed on insured depository institutions to pay for the cost of Financing Corporation (“FICO”) funding. The FICO assessments are adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in the assessment base of the DIF and do not vary depending upon a depository institution’s capitalization or supervisory evaluation. During 2008, FDIC assessments for purposes of funding FICO bond obligations ranged from an annualized $0.0114 per $100 of deposits for the first quarter of 2008 to $0.0110 per $100 of deposits for the fourth quarter of 2008. The Bank paid $1.8 million of FICO assessments in 2008. For the first quarter of 2009, the FICO assessment rate is $0.0114 per $100 of deposits.

Transactions between the Bank and any of its affiliates, including the Company, are governed by sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act and FRS regulations thereunder. An “affiliate” of a bank is any company or entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with the bank. A subsidiary of a bank that is not also a depository institution is not treated as an affiliate of the bank for purposes of sections 23A and 23B, unless the subsidiary is also controlled through a non-bank chain of ownership by affiliates or controlling shareholders of the bank, the subsidiary is a financial subsidiary that operates under the expanded authority granted to national banks under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLB Act”), or the subsidiary engages in other activities that are not permissible for a bank to engage in directly (except insurance agency subsidiaries). Generally, sections 23A and 23B are intended to protect insured depository institutions from suffering losses arising from transactions with non-insured affiliates, by placing quantitative and qualitative limitations on covered transactions between a bank and with any one affiliate as well as all affiliates of the bank in the aggregate, and requiring that such transactions be on terms that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices.

In 2007, the Federal Reserve and Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) issued a final joint rulemaking (Regulation R) to clarify that traditional banking activities involving some elements of securities brokerage activitities, such as most trust and fiduciary activities, may continue to be performed by banks rather than being “pushed-out” to affiliates supervised by the SEC.  These rules take effect for the Bank beginning January 1, 2009.

Under the GLB Act, a financial holding company may engage in certain financial activities that a bank holding company may not otherwise engage in under the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHC Act”). In addition to engaging in banking and activities closely related to banking as determined by the FRS by regulation or order prior to November 11, 1999, a financial holding company may engage in activities that are financial in nature or incidental to financial activities, or activities that are complementary to a financial activity and do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of depository institutions or the financial system generally.

The GLB Act requires all financial institutions, including the Company and the Bank, to adopt privacy policies, restrict the sharing of nonpublic customer data with nonaffiliated parties at the customer’s request, and establish procedures and practices to protect customer data from unauthorized access. In addition, the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (“FACT Act”) includes many provisions concerning national credit reporting standards, and permits consumers, including customers of the Company, to opt out of information sharing among affiliated companies for marketing purposes. The FACT Act also requires banks and other financial institutions to notify their customers if they report negative information about them to a credit bureau or if they are granted credit on terms less favorable than those generally available. The FRS and the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) have extensive rulemaking authority under the FACT Act, and the Company and the Bank are subject to the rules that have been promulgated by the FRS and FTC, including recent rules regarding limitaions of affiliate marketing and implementation of programs to identify, detect and mitigate certain identity theft red flags. The Company has developed policies and procedures for itself and its subsidiaries, including the Bank, and believes it is in compliance with all privacy, information sharing, and notification provisions of the GLB Act and the FACT Act.

Periodic disclosures by companies in various industries of the loss or theft of computer-based nonpublic customer information have led several members of Congress to call for the adoption of national standards for the safeguarding of such information and the disclosure of security breaches. Several committees of both houses of Congress have conducted and have proposed legislation regarding these issues.

Under Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act, also known as the International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-Terrorism Financing Act of 2001, all financial institutions, including the Company and the Bank, are required in general to identify their customers, adopt formal and comprehensive anti-money laundering programs, scrutinize or prohibit altogether certain transactions of special concern, and be prepared to respond to inquiries from U.S. law enforcement agencies concerning their customers and their transactions. The USA PATRIOT Act also encourages information-sharing among financial institutions, regulators, and law enforcement authorities by providing an exemption from the privacy provisions of the GLB Act for financial institutions that comply with this provision. The effectiveness of a financial institution in combating money laundering activities is a factor to be considered in any application submitted by the financial institution under the Bank Merger Act, which applies to the Bank, or the BHC Act, which applies to the Company. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing, or to comply with all of the relevant laws or regulations, could have serious legal, financial and reputational consequences for the institution. As of December 31, 2008, the Company and the Bank believe they are in compliance with the USA PATRIOT Act and regulations thereunder.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOA”) implemented a broad range of measures to increase corporate responsibility, enhance penalties for accounting and auditing improprieties at publicly traded companies, and protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures pursuant to federal securities laws. The SOA applies generally to companies that have securities registered under the Exchange Act, including publicly-held bank holding companies such as the Company. It includes very specific additional disclosure requirements and has adopted corporate governance rules, and requires the SEC and securities exchanges to adopt extensive additional disclosure, corporate governance and other related rules pursuant to its mandates. The SOA represents significant federal involvement in matters traditionally left to state regulatory systems, such as the regulation of the accounting profession, and to state corporate law, such as the relationship between a board of directors and management and between a board of directors and its committees. In addition, the federal banking regulators have adopted generally similar requirements concerning the certification of financial statements by bank officials.

Home mortgage lenders, including banks, are required under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (“HMDA”) to make available to the public expanded information regarding the pricing of home mortgage loans, including the “rate spread” between the interest rate on loans and certain Treasury securities and other benchmarks. The availability of this information has led to increased scrutiny of higher-priced loans at all financial institutions to detect illegal discriminatory practices and to the initiation of a limited number of investigations by federal banking agencies and the U.S. Department of Justice. The Company has no information that it or its affiliates is the subject of any HMDA investigation.

In the past two years, declining housing values have resulted in deteriorating economic conditions across the U.S., resulting in significant writedowns in the values of mortgage-backed securities and derivative securities by financial institutions, government sponsored entities, and major commercial and investment banks. This has led to decreased confidence in financial markets among borrowers, lenders, and depositors as well as extreme volatility in the capital and credit markets and the failure of some entities in the financial sector The Company is fortunate that the markets it serves have been impacted to a lesser extent than many areas around the country.

In response to the financial crises affecting the banking system and financial markets, there have been several recent announcements of Federal programs designed to purchase assets from, provide equity capital to, and guarantee the liquidity of, the industry.

On October 3, 2008, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (the “EESA”) was signed into law.  The EESA authorizes the U.S. Treasury to, among other things, purchase up to $700 billion of mortgages, mortgage-backed securities, and certain other financial instruments from financial institutions for the purpose of stabilizing and providing liquidity to the U.S. financial markets.  The Company did not originate or invest in sub-prime assets and, therefore, does not expect to participate in the sale of any of our assets into these programs.  EESA also increased the FDIC deposit insurance limit for most accounts from $100,000 to $250,000 through December 31, 2009.

On October 14, 2008, the U.S. Treasury announced that it will purchase equity stakes in a wide variety of banks and thrifts.  Under this program, known as the Troubled Asset Relief Program Capital Purchase Program (the “TARP Capital Purchase Program”), the U.S. Treasury will make $250 billion of capital available (from the $700 billion authorized by the EESA) to U.S. financial institutions in the form of preferred stock.  In conjunction with the purchase of preferred stock, the U.S. Treasury will receive warrants to purchase common stock with an aggregate market price equal to 15% of the preferred investment.  Participating financial institutions will be required to adopt the U.S. Treasury’s standards for executive compensation and corporate governance for the period during which the Treasury holds equity issued under the TARP Capital Purchase Program, as well as the more stringent executive compensation limits enacted as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the “ARRA” or “Stimulus Bill”), which was signed into law on February 17, 2009.  The Company was approved but chose not to participate in the TARP Capital Purchase Program.

At December 31, 2008, the Company had 1,411 full-time equivalent employees. The Company’s employees are not presently represented by any collective bargaining group.  The Company considers its employee relations to be good.

The Company’s website is The Company makes available free of charge through its website, its annual reports on Form 10-K; quarterly reports on Form 10-Q; current reports on Form 8-K; and any amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed or furnished with the SEC pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. We also make available through our website other reports filed with or furnished to the SEC under the Exchange Act, including our proxy statements and reports filed by officers and directors under Section 16(a) of that Act, as well as our Code of Business Ethics and other codes/committee charters. The references to our website do not constitute incorporation by reference of the  information contained in the website and such information should not be considered part of this document.

Any materials we file with the SEC may be read and copied at the SEC's Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, DC, 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site ( that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC.


There are risks inherent to the Company’s business. The material risks and uncertainties that management believes affect the Company are described below. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing the Company. Additional risks and uncertainties that management is not aware of or focused on or that management currently deems immaterial may also present risk to the Company’s business operations. This report is qualified in its entirety by these risk factors. If any of the following risks actually occur, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The Company’s Profitability Depends Significantly on Local and National Economic Conditions

The Company’s success depends primarily on the general economic conditions of upstate New York and northeastern Pennsylvania and the specific local markets in which the Company operates. Unlike larger national or other regional banks that are more geographically diversified, the Company provides banking and financial services to customers primarily in the upstate New York areas of Norwich, Oneonta, Amsterdam-Gloversville, Albany, Binghamton, Utica-Rome, Plattsburg, and Ogdensburg-Massena and the northeastern Pennsylvania areas of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and East Stroudsburg. The local economic conditions in these areas have a significant impact on the demand for the Company’s products and services as well as the ability of the Company’s customers to repay loans, the value of the collateral securing loans and the stability of the Company’s deposit funding sources. A significant decline in general economic conditions, caused by inflation, recession, acts of terrorism, outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic occurrences, unemployment, changes in securities markets or other factors could impact these local economic conditions and, in turn, have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

2008 was highlighted by significant disruption and volatility in the financial and capital marketplaces.  This turbulence has been attributable to a variety of factors, including the fallout associated with the subprime mortgage market.  One aspect of this fallout has been significant deterioration in the activity of the secondary market.  The disruptions have been exacerbated by the continued decline of the real estate and housing market along with significant mortgage loan related losses incurred by many lending institutions.  The turmoil in the mortgage market has impacted the global markets as well as the domestic markets and led to a significant credit and liquidity crisis in many domestic markets during 2008.  As a lender, we may be adversely affected by general economic weaknesses, and, in particular, a sharp downturn in the housing industry in the states of New York and Pennsylvania.  No assurance can be given that these conditions will improve or will not worsen or that such conditions will not result in an increase in delinquencies, causing a decrease in our interest income, or continue to have an adverse impact on our loan loss experience, causing an increase in our allowance for loan losses.

The Company is Subject to Interest Rate Risk

The Company’s earnings and cash flows are largely dependent upon its net interest income. Net interest income is the difference between interest income earned on interest-earning assets such as loans and securities and interest expense paid on interest-bearing liabilities such as deposits and borrowed funds. Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors that are beyond the Company’s control, including general economic conditions and policies of various governmental and regulatory agencies and, in particular, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Changes in monetary policy, including changes in interest rates, could influence not only the interest the Company receives on loans and securities and the amount of interest it pays on deposits and borrowings, but such changes could also affect (i) the Company’s ability to originate loans and obtain deposits, (ii) the fair value of the Company’s financial assets and liabilities, and (iii) the average duration of the Company’s mortgage-backed securities portfolio. If the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings increase at a faster rate than the interest rates received on loans and other investments, the Company’s net interest income, and therefore earnings, could be adversely affected. Earnings could also be adversely affected if the interest rates received on loans and other investments fall more quickly than the interest rates paid on deposits and other borrowings.

Although management believes it has implemented effective asset and liability management strategies to reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on the Company’s results of operations, any substantial, unexpected, or prolonged change in market interest rates could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. See the section captioned “Net Interest Income” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure About Market Risk located elsewhere in this report for further discussion related to the Company’s management of interest rate risk.

The Company is Subject to Lending Risk

There are inherent risks associated with the Company’s lending activities. These risks include, among other things, the impact of changes in interest rates and changes in the economic conditions in the markets where the Company operates as well as those across the States of New York and Pennsylvania, and the entire United States. Increases in interest rates and/or weakening economic conditions could adversely impact the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans or the value of the collateral securing these loans. The Company is also subject to various laws and regulations that affect its lending activities. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations could subject the Company to regulatory enforcement action that could result in the assessment of significant civil money penalties against the Company.

As of December 31, 2008, approximately 39% of the Company’s loan and lease portfolio consisted of commercial, agricultural, construction and commercial real estate loans. These types of loans are generally viewed as having more risk of default than residential real estate loans or consumer loans. These types of loans are also typically larger than residential real estate loans and consumer loans. Because the Company’s loan portfolio contains a significant number of commercial and industrial, construction and commercial real estate loans with relatively large balances, the deterioration of one or a few of these loans could cause a significant increase in nonperforming loans. An increase in nonperforming loans could result in a net loss of earnings from these loans, an increase in the provision for loan losses and/or an increase in loan charge-offs, all of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. See the section captioned “Loans and Leases and Corresponding Interest and Fees on Loans” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations located elsewhere in this report for further discussion related to commercial and industrial, construction and commercial real estate loans.

The Company’s Allowance For Loan and Lease Losses May Be Insufficient

The Company maintains an allowance for loan and lease losses, which is an allowance established through a provision for loan and lease losses charged to expense, that represents management’s best estimate of probable losses that could be incurred within the existing portfolio of loans and leases. The allowance, in the judgment of management, is necessary to reserve for estimated loan and lease losses and risks inherent in the loan and lease portfolio. The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of industry concentrations; specific credit risks; loan loss experience; current loan and lease portfolio quality; present economic, political and regulatory conditions and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan and lease losses inherently involves a high degree of subjectivity and requires the Company to make significant estimates of current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Changes in economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of the Company’s control, may require an increase in the allowance for loan losses. In addition, bank regulatory agencies periodically review the Company’s allowance for loan losses and may require an increase in the provision for loan losses or the recognition of further loan charge-offs, based on judgments different than those of management. In addition, if charge-offs in future periods exceed the allowance for loan and lease losses, the Company will need additional provisions to increase the allowance for loan and lease losses. These increases in the allowance for loan and lease losses will result in a decrease in net income and, possibly, capital, and may have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations. See the section captioned “Risk Management – Credit Risk” in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations located elsewhere in this report for further discussion related to the Company’s process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for loan and losses.

The Company Operates In a Highly Competitive Industry and Market Area

The Company faces substantial competition in all areas of its operations from a variety of different competitors, many of which are larger and may have more financial resources. Such competitors primarily include national, regional, and community banks within the various markets the Company operates. Additionally, various out-of-state banks continue to enter or have announced plans to enter the market areas in which the Company currently operates. The Company also faces competition from many other types of financial institutions, including, without limitation, savings and loans, credit unions, finance companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and other financial intermediaries. The financial services industry could become even more competitive as a result of legislative, regulatory and technological changes and continued consolidation. Banks, securities firms and insurance companies can merge under the umbrella of a financial holding company, which can offer virtually any type of financial service, including banking, securities underwriting, insurance (both agency and underwriting) and merchant banking. Also, technology has lowered barriers to entry and made it possible for non-banks to offer products and services traditionally provided by banks, such as automatic transfer and automatic payment systems. Many of the Company’s competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. Additionally, due to their size, many competitors may be able to achieve economies of scale and, as a result, may offer a broader range of products and services as well as better pricing for those products and services than the Company can. The Company’s ability to compete successfully depends on a number of factors, including, among other things:

• The ability to develop, maintain and build upon long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets.
• The ability to expand the Company’s market position.
The scope, relevance and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands.
• The rate at which the Company introduces new products and services relative to its competitors.
• Customer satisfaction with the Company’s level of service.
• Industry and general economic trends.

Failure to perform in any of these areas could significantly weaken the Company’s competitive position, which could adversely affect the Company’s growth and profitability, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

There Can Be No Assurance That Recent Government Action Will Help Stabilize the U.S. Financial System and Will Not Have Unintended Adverse Consequences.

In recent periods, the U.S. government and various federal agencies and bank regulators have taken steps to stabilize and stimulate the financial services industry. Changes also have been made in tax policy for financial institutions.  The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (the “EESA”) was an initial legislative response to the financial crises affecting the banking system and financial markets and going concern threats to financial institutions. Pursuant to the EESA, the U.S. Treasury will have the authority to, among other things, purchase up to $700 billion of mortgages, mortgage-backed securities and certain other financial instruments from financial institutions for the purpose of stabilizing and providing liquidity to the U.S. financial markets. As an initial program, the U.S. Treasury is exercising its authority to purchase an aggregate of $250 billion of capital instruments from financial entities throughout the United States.  Other government action, such as the recently announced Homeowner Affordability and Stability Plan are intended to prevent mortgage defaults and foreclosures, which may provide benefits to the economy as a whole, but may reduce the value of certain mortgage loans or related mortgage-related securities investors such as the Company may hold.  There can be no assurance as to the actual impact that these or other government actions will have on the financial markets, including the extreme levels of volatility and limited credit availability currently being experienced. The failure of the EESA and other measures to help stabilize the financial markets and a continuation or worsening of current financial market conditions could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business, financial condition, results of operations, access to credit or the trading price of its common stock.

The Company Is Subject To Extensive Government Regulation and Supervision

The Company, primarily through the Bank and certain non-bank subsidiaries, is subject to extensive federal regulation and supervision. Banking regulations are primarily intended to protect depositors’ funds, federal deposit insurance funds and the banking system as a whole, not shareholders. These regulations affect the Company’s lending practices, capital structure, investment practices, dividend policy and growth, among other things. Congress and federal regulatory agencies continually review banking laws, regulations and policies for possible changes. Changes to statutes, regulations or regulatory policies, including changes in interpretation or implementation of statutes, regulations or policies, could affect the Company in substantial and unpredictable ways. Such changes could subject the Company to additional costs, limit the types of financial services and products the Company may offer and/or increase the ability of non-banks to offer competing financial services and products, among other things. Failure to comply with laws, regulations or policies could result in sanctions by regulatory agencies, civil money penalties and/or reputation damage, which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent any such violations, there can be no assurance that such violations will not occur. See the section captioned “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1. Business, which is located elsewhere in this report.

The Company’s Controls and Procedures May Fail or Be Circumvented

Management regularly reviews and updates the Company’s internal controls, disclosure controls and procedures, and corporate governance policies and procedures. Any system of controls, however well designed and operated, is based in part on certain assumptions and can provide only reasonable, not absolute, assurances that the objectives of the system are met. Any failure or circumvention of the Company’s controls and procedures or failure to comply with regulations related to controls and procedures could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

New Lines of Business or New Products and Services May Subject The Company to Additional Risks

From time to time, the Company may implement new lines of business or offer new products and services within existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In developing and marketing new lines of business and/or new products and services the Company may invest significant time and resources. Initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business and/or new products or services may not be achieved and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the successful implementation of a new line of business or a new product or service. Furthermore, any new line of business and/or new product or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the Company’s system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or new products or services could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, results of operations and financial condition.

The Company Relies on Dividends From Its Subsidiaries For Most Of Its Revenue

The Company is a separate and distinct legal entity from its subsidiaries. It receives substantially all of its revenue from dividends from its subsidiaries. These dividends are the principal source of funds to pay dividends on the Company’s common stock and interest and principal on the Company’s debt. Various federal and/or state laws and regulations limit the amount of dividends that the Bank may pay to the Company. Also, the Company’s right to participate in a distribution of assets upon a subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization is subject to the prior claims of the subsidiary’s creditors. In the event the Bank is unable to pay dividends to the Company, the Company may not be able to service debt, pay obligations or pay dividends on the Company’s common stock.

The inability to receive dividends from the Bank could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. See the section captioned “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1. Business and Note 16 — Stockholders’ Equity in the notes to consolidated financial statements included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, which are located elsewhere in this report.

The Company May Not Be Able To Attract and Retain Skilled People

The Company’s success depends, in large part, on its ability to attract and retain key people. Competition for the best people in most activities engaged in by the Company can be intense and the Company may not be able to hire people or to retain them. The unexpected loss of services of one or more of the Company’s key personnel could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business because of their skills, knowledge of the Company’s market, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel.

The Company’s Information Systems May Experience An Interruption Or Breach In Security

The Company relies heavily on communications and information systems to conduct its business. Any failure, interruption or breach in security of these systems could result in failures or disruptions in the Company’s customer relationship management, general ledger, deposit, loan and other systems. While the Company has policies and procedures designed to prevent or limit the effect of the failure, interruption or security breach of its information systems, there can be no assurance that any such failures, interruptions or security breaches will not occur or, if they do occur, that they will be adequately addressed. The occurrence of any failures, interruptions or security breaches of the Company’s information systems could damage the Company’s reputation, result in a loss of customer business, subject the Company to additional regulatory scrutiny, or expose the Company to civil litigation and possible financial liability, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

The Company Continually Encounters Technological Change

The financial services industry is continually undergoing rapid technological change with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to better serve customers and to reduce costs. The Company’s future success depends, in part, upon its ability to address the needs of its customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands, as well as to create additional efficiencies in the Company’s operations. Many of the Company’s competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. The Company may not be able to effectively implement new technology-driven products and services or be successful in marketing these products and services to its customers. Failure to successfully keep pace with technological changes affecting the financial services industry could have a material adverse impact on the Company’s business and, in turn, the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

Severe Weather, Natural Disasters, Acts Of War Or Terrorism and Other External Events Could Significantly Impact The Company’s Business

Severe weather, natural disasters, acts of war or terrorism and other adverse external events could have a significant impact on the Company’s ability to conduct business. Such events could affect the stability of the Company’s deposit base, impair the ability of borrowers to repay outstanding loans, impair the value of collateral securing loans, cause significant property damage, result in loss of revenue and/or cause the Company to incur additional expenses. Although management has established disaster recovery policies and procedures, the occurrence of any such event could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, which, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial condition and results of operations.

The Company’s Articles Of Incorporation, By-Laws and Stockholder Rights Plan As Well As Certain Banking Laws May Have An Anti-Takeover Effect

Provisions of the Company’s articles of incorporation and by-laws, federal banking laws, including regulatory approval requirements, and the Company’s stock purchase rights plan could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire the Company, even if doing so would be perceived to be beneficial to the Company’s stockholders. The combination of these provisions effectively inhibits a non-negotiated merger or other business combination, which, in turn, could adversely affect the market price of the Company’s common stock.

Difficult Market Conditions Have Adversely Affected Our Industry.

Dramatic declines in the housing market over the past year, with falling home prices and increasing foreclosures, unemployment and under-employment, have negatively impacted the credit performance of mortgage loans and resulted in significant write-downs of asset values by financial institutions, including government-sponsored entities as well as major commercial and investment banks. These write-downs, initially of mortgage-backed securities but spreading to credit default swaps and other derivative and cash securities, in turn, have caused many financial institutions to seek additional capital, to merge with larger and stronger institutions and, in some cases, to fail. Reflecting concern about the stability of the financial markets generally and the strength of counterparties, many lenders and institutional investors have reduced or ceased providing funding to borrowers, including to other financial institutions. This market turmoil and tightening of credit have led to an increased level of commercial and consumer delinquencies, lack of consumer confidence, increased market volatility and widespread reduction of business activity generally. The resulting economic pressure on consumers and lack of confidence in the financial markets has adversely affected our business, financial condition and results of operations. We do not expect that the difficult conditions in the financial markets are likely to improve in the near future. A worsening of these conditions would likely exacerbate the adverse effects of these difficult market conditions on us and others in the financial institution industry. In particular, we may face the following risks in connection with these events:

We expect to face increased regulation of our industry. Compliance with such regulation may increase our costs and limit our ability to pursue business opportunities.

Market developments may affect customer confidence levels and may cause increases in delinquencies and default rates, which we expect could impact our charge-offs and provision for loan losses.

Our ability to borrow from other financial institutions or to access the debt or equity capital markets on favorable terms or at all could be adversely affected by further disruptions in the capital markets or other events, including actions by rating agencies and deteriorating investor expectations.

Competition in our industry could intensify as a result of the increasing consolidation of financial services companies in connection with current market conditions.

We will be required to pay significantly higher FDIC premiums because market developments have significantly depleted the insurance fund of the FDIC and reduced the ratio of reserves to insured deposits.

Current Levels Of Market Volatility Are Unprecedented.

The capital and credit markets have been experiencing volatility and disruption for more than 12 months. Recently, the volatility and disruption has reached unprecedented levels. In most cases, the markets have produced downward pressure on stock prices and credit availability for certain issuers without regard to those issuers’ underlying financial strength. If current levels of market disruption and volatility continue or worsen, there can be no assurance that we will not experience an adverse effect, which may be material, on our ability to access capital and on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The Company is Subject to Other-than-temporary Impairment Risk

The Company recognizes an impairment charge when the decline in the fair value of equity, debt securities and cost-method investments below their cost basis are judged to be other-than-temporary. Significant judgment is used to identify events or circumstances that would likely have a significant adverse effect on the future use of the investment. The Company considers various factors in determining whether an impairment is other-than-temporary, including the severity and duration of the impairment, forecasted recovery, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and our ability and intent to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value. Information about unrealized gains and losses is subject to changing conditions. The values of securities with unrealized gains and losses will fluctuate, as will the values of securities that we identify as potentially distressed. Our current evaluation of other-than-temporary impairments reflects our intent to hold securities for a reasonable period of time sufficient for a forecasted recovery of fair value. However, our intent to hold certain of these securities may change in future periods as a result of facts and circumstances impacting a specific security. If our intent to hold a security with an unrealized loss changes, and we do not expect the security to fully recover prior to the expected time of disposition, we will write down the security to its fair value in the period that our intent to hold the security changes.

The process of evaluating the potential impairment of goodwill and other intangibles is highly subjective and requires significant judgment. The Company estimates expected future cash flows of its various businesses and determines the carrying value of these businesses.  The Company exercises judgment in assigning and allocating certain assets and liabilities to these businesses. The Company then compares the carrying value, including goodwill and other intangibles, to the discounted future cash flows. If the total of future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets, an impairment loss is recognized based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of the assets. Estimates of the future cash flows associated with the assets are critical to these assessments. Changes in these estimates based on changed economic conditions or business strategies could result in material impairment charges in future periods.

The Company May Be Adversely Affected by the Soundness of Other Financial Institutions

The Company owns common stock of Federal Home Loan Bank of New York ("FHLBNY") in order to qualify for membership in the FHLB system, which enables it to borrow funds under the FHLBNY advance program.  The carrying value of our FHLBNY common stock was $39.0 million as of December 31, 2008.

There are 12 branches of the FHLB, including New York.  Several members have warned that they have either breached risk-based capital requirements or that they are close to breaching those requirements.  To conserve capital, some FHLB branches are suspending dividends, cutting dividend payments, and not buying back excess FHLB stock that members hold.  FHLBNY has stated that they expect to be able to continue to pay dividends, redeem excess capital stock, and provide competively priced advances in the future.  The most severe problems in FHLB have been at some of the other FHLB branches.  Nonetheless, the 12 FHLB branches are jointly liable for the consolidated obligations of the FHLB system.  To the extent that one FHLB branch cannot meet its obligations to pay its share of the system’s debt, other FHLB branches can be called upon to make the payment.



The Company’s headquarters are located at 52 South Broad Street, Norwich, New York 13815.  The Company operated the following number of community banking branches and ATMs as of December 31, 2008:

NBT Bank Division
Pennstar Bank Division
New York
Albany County
Lackawanna County
Broome County
Luzerne County
Chenango County
Monroe County
Clinton County
Pike County
Delaware County
Susquehanna County
Essex County
Wayne County
Franklin County
Fulton County
Hamilton County
Herkimer County
Montgomery County
Oneida County
Otsego County
Saratoga County
Schenectady County
Schoharie County
St. Lawrence County
Tioga County
Ulster County
Warren County

The Company leases 45 of the above listed branches from third parties.  The Company owns all other banking premises. The Company believes that its offices are sufficient for its present operations.  All of the above ATMs are owned by the Company.

There are no material pending legal proceedings, other than ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or of which their property is the subject.



The common stock of NBT Bancorp Inc. (“Common Stock”) is quoted on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NBTB.” The following table sets forth the market prices and dividends declared for the Common Stock for the periods indicated:

1st quarter
  $ 25.81     $ 21.73     $ 0.20  
2nd quarter
    23.45       21.80       0.20  
3rd quarter
    23.80       17.10       0.20  
4th quarter
    25.00       20.58       0.20  
1st quarter
  $ 23.65     $ 17.95     $ 0.20  
2nd quarter
    25.00       20.33       0.20  
3rd quarter
    36.47       19.05       0.20  
4th quarter
    30.83       21.71       0.20  

The closing price of the Common Stock on February 15, 2009 was $21.70.

As of February 15, 2009, there were 6,887 shareholders of record of Company common stock.

Equity Compensation Plan Information

As of December 31, 2008, the following table summarizes the Company’s equity compensation plans:

Plan Category
A. Number of securities to be issued upon exercise of outstanding options
B. Weighted-average exercise price of outstanding options
Number of securities remaining available for future issuance under equity compensation plans (excluding securities reflected in column A.)
Equity compensation plans approved by stockholders
    1,640,237 (1)   $ 21.26       4,255,768  
Equity compensation plans not approved by stockholders

Includes 30,700 shares issuable pursuant to restricted stock units granted pursuant to the Company's equity compensation plan.  These awards are for the distribution of shares to the grant recipient upon the completion of time-based holding periods and do not have an associated exercise price.  Accordingly, these awards are not reflected in the weighted-average exercise price dislosed in Column B.

Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return (i.e., price change, reinvestment of cash dividends and stock dividends received) on our common stock against the cumulative total return of the NASDAQ Stock Market (U.S. Companies) Index and the Index for NASDAQ Financial Stocks.  The stock performance graph assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2003.  The graph further assumes the reinvestment of dividends into additional shares of the same class of equity securities at the frequency with which dividends are paid on such securities during the relevant fiscal year.  The yearly points marked on the horizontal axis correspond to December 31 of that year.  We calculate each of the referenced indices in the same manner.  All are market-capitalization-weighted indices, so companies judged by the market to be more important (i.e., more valuable) count for more in all indices.

Five Year Cumulative Total Return

Graph 1

Period Ending
NBT Bancorp
  $ 100.00     $ 123.79     $ 107.43     $ 131.04     $ 121.37     $ 153.61  
NASDAQ Financial Stocks
  $ 100.00     $ 115.23     $ 117.94     $ 134.76     $ 125.03     $ 88.63  
NASDAQ Composite Index
  $ 100.00     $ 109.14     $ 111.46     $ 123.02     $ 136.12     $ 81.73  

Source:  Bloomberg, L.P.


We depend primarily upon dividends from our subsidiaries for a substantial part of our revenue.  Accordingly, our ability to pay dividends depends primarily upon the receipt of dividends or other capital distributions from our subsidiaries.  Payment of dividends to the Company from the Bank is subject to certain regulatory and other restrictions.  Under OCC regulations, the Bank may pay dividends to the Company without prior regulatory approval so long as it meets its applicable regulatory capital requirements before and after payment of such dividends and its total dividends do not exceed its net income to date over the calendar year plus retained net income over the preceding two years.  At December 31, 2008, the Bank was in compliance with all applicable minimum capital requirements and had the ability to pay dividends of $46.6 million to the Company without the prior approval of the OCC.

If the capital of the Company is diminished by depreciation in the value of its property or by losses, or otherwise, to an amount less than the aggregate amount of the capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets, no dividends may be paid out of net profits until the deficiency in the amount of capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets has been repaired.  See the section captioned “Supervision and Regulation” in Item 1. Business and Note 15 – Stockholders’ Equity in the notes to consolidated financial statements in included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data, which are located elsewhere in this report.


The following summary of financial and other information about the Company is derived from the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements for each of the last five fiscal years ended December 31 and should be read in conjunction with Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes, included elsewhere in this report:

Year ended December 31,
(In thousands, except per share data)
Interest, fee and dividend income
  $ 294,414     $ 306,117     $ 288,842     $ 236,367     $ 210,179  
Interest expense
    108,368       141,090       125,009       78,256       59,692  
Net interest income
    186,046       165,027       163,833       158,111       150,487  
Provision for loan and lease losses
    27,181       30,094       9,395       9,464       9,615  
Noninterest income excluding securities gains (losses)
    70,171       57,586       49,504       43,785       40,673  
Securities gains (losses) , net
    1,535       2,113       (875 )     (1,236 )     216  
Noninterest expense
    146,813       122,517       122,966       115,305       109,777  
Income before income taxes
    83,758       72,115       80,101       75,891       71,984  
Net income
    58,353       50,328       55,947       52,438       50,047  
Per common share
Basic earnings
  $ 1.81     $ 1.52     $ 1.65     $ 1.62     $ 1.53  
Diluted earnings
    1.80       1.51       1.64       1.60       1.51  
Cash dividends paid
    0.80       0.79       0.76       0.76       0.74  
Book value at year-end
    13.24       12.29       11.79       10.34       10.11  
Tangible book value at year-end
    9.01       8.78       8.42       8.75       8.66  
Average diluted common shares outstanding
    32,427       33,421       34,206       32,710       33,087  
At December 31,
Securities available for sale, at fair value
  $ 1,119,665     $ 1,140,114     $ 1,106,322     $ 954,474     $ 952,542  
Securities held to maturity, at amortized cost
    140,209       149,111       136,314       93,709       81,782  
Loans and leases
    3,651,911       3,455,851       3,412,654       3,022,657       2,869,921  
Allowance for loan and lease losses
    58,564       54,183       50,587       47,455       44,932  
    5,336,088       5,201,776       5,087,572       4,426,773       4,212,304  
    3,923,258       3,872,093       3,796,238       3,160,196       3,073,838  
    914,123       868,776       838,558       883,182       752,066  
Stockholders’ equity
    431,845       397,300       403,817       333,943       332,233  
Key ratios
Return on average assets
    1.11 %     0.98 %     1.14 %     1.21 %     1.21 %
Return on average equity
    14.16       12.60       14.47       15.86       15.69  
Average equity to average assets
    7.83       7.81       7.85       7.64       7.74  
Net interest margin
    3.95       3.61       3.70       4.01       4.03  
Dividend payout ratio
    44.44       52.32       46.34       47.50       49.01  
Tier 1 leverage
    7.17       7.14       7.57       7.16       7.13  
Tier 1 risk-based capital
    9.75       9.79       10.42       9.80       9.78  
Total risk-based capital
    11.00       11.05       11.67       11.05       11.04  

Selected Quarterly Financial Data
(Dollars in thousands, except per share data)
Interest, fee and dividend income
  $ 74,652     $ 72,854     $ 73,621     $ 73,287     $ 75,459     $ 76,495     $ 77,181     $ 76,982  
Interest expense
    30,587       26,849       26,578       24,354       34,830       35,137       35,994       35,129  
Net interest income
    44,065       46,005       47,043       48,933       40,629       41,358       41,187       41,853  
Provision for loan and lease losses
    6,478       5,803       7,179       7,721       2,096       9,770       4,788       13,440  
Noninterest income excluding net securities gains (losses)
    16,080       16,401       17,452       20,238       12,695       13,971       15,043       15,877  
Net securities gains (losses)
    15       18       1,510       (8 )     (5 )     21       1,484       613  
Noninterest expense
    34,034       35,423       37,058       40,298       30,872       28,014       31,227       32,404  
Net income
    13,716       14,657       15,083       14,897       14,132       12,064       15,147       8,985  
Basic earnings per share
  $ 0.43     $ 0.46     $ 0.47     $ 0.46     $ 0.41     $ 0.36     $ 0.46     $ 0.28  
Diluted earnings per share
  $ 0.43     $ 0.45     $ 0.46     $ 0.45     $ 0.41     $ 0.36     $ 0.46     $ 0.28  
Net interest margin
    3.84 %     3.94 %     3.94 %     4.06 %     3.63 %     3.63 %     3.56 %     3.61 %
Return on average assets
    1.07 %     1.12 %     1.13 %     1.11 %     1.13 %     0.95 %     1.17 %     0.69 %
Return on average equity
    13.68 %     14.49 %     14.58 %     13.88 %     14.06 %     11.90 %     15.41 %     9.06 %
Average diluted common shares outstanding
    32,252       32,242       32,453       32,758       34,457       33,936       32,921       32,398  



The financial review which follows focuses on the factors affecting the consolidated financial condition and results of operations of NBT Bancorp Inc. (the “Registrant”) and its wholly owned subsidiaries, the Bank, NBT Financial and NBT Holdings during 2008 and, in summary form, the preceding two years. Collectively, the Registrant and its subsidiaries are referred to herein as “the Company.” Net interest margin is presented in this discussion on a fully taxable equivalent (FTE) basis. Average balances discussed are daily averages unless otherwise described. The audited consolidated financial statements and related notes as of December 31, 2008 and 2007 and for each of the years in the three-year period ended December 31, 2008 should be read in conjunction with this review. Amounts in prior period consolidated financial statements are reclassified whenever necessary to conform to the 2008 presentation.

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions, in the application of certain accounting policies, about the effect of matters that are inherently uncertain. Those estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of certain assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses. Different amounts could be reported under different conditions, or if different assumptions were used in the application of these accounting policies.

The business of the Company is providing commercial banking and financial services through its subsidiaries. The Company’s primary market area is central and upstate New York and northeastern Pennsylvania. The Company has been, and intends to continue to be, a community-oriented financial institution offering a variety of financial services. The Company’s principal business is attracting deposits  from  customers  within  its  market  area  and  investing those funds primarily  in  loans  and  leases within its market area,  and,  to  a  lesser  extent,  in  marketable securities.  The financial condition and operating results of the Company are dependent on its net interest income which is the difference between the interest and dividend income earned on its earning assets and the interest expense paid on its interest bearing liabilities, primarily consisting of deposits and borrowings. Net income is also affected by provisions for loan and lease losses and noninterest income, such as service charges on deposit accounts, broker/dealer fees, trust fees, insurance commissions, and gains/losses on securities sales; it is also impacted by noninterest expense, such as salaries and employee benefits, data processing, communications, occupancy, and equipment expenses.

The Company’s results of operations are significantly affected by general economic and competitive conditions (particularly changes in market interest rates), government policies, changes in accounting standards, and actions of regulatory agencies. Future changes in applicable laws, regulations, or government policies may have a material impact on the Company. Lending activities are substantially influenced by the demand for and supply of housing, competition among lenders, the level of interest rates, the state of the local and regional economy, and the availability of funds. The ability to gather deposits and the cost of funds are influenced by prevailing market interest rates, fees and terms on deposit products, as well as the availability of alternative investments including mutual funds and stocks.


The Company has identified several policies as being critical because they require management to make particularly difficult, subjective and/or complex judgments about matters that are inherently uncertain and because of the likelihood that materially different amounts would be reported under different conditions or using different assumptions. These policies relate to the allowance for loan losses and pension accounting.

Management of the Company considers the accounting policy relating to the allowance for loan and lease losses to be a critical accounting policy given the uncertainty in evaluating the level of the allowance required to cover credit losses inherent in the loan and lease portfolio and the material effect that such judgments can have on the results of operations. While management’s current evaluation of the allowance for loan and lease losses indicates that the allowance is adequate, under adversely different conditions or assumptions, the allowance may need to be increased. For example, if historical loan and lease loss experience significantly worsened or if current economic conditions significantly deteriorated, additional provision for loan and lease losses would be required to increase the allowance. In addition, the assumptions and estimates used in the internal reviews of the Company’s nonperforming loans and potential problem loans have a significant impact on the overall analysis of the adequacy of the allowance for loan and lease losses. While management has concluded that the current evaluation of collateral values is reasonable under the circumstances, if collateral values were significantly lowered, the Company’s allowance for loan and lease policy would also require additional provision for loan and lease losses.

Management is required to make various assumptions in valuing its pension assets and liabilities. These assumptions include the expected rate of return on plan assets, the discount rate, and the rate of increase in future compensation levels. Changes to these assumptions could impact earnings in future periods. The Company takes into account the plan asset mix, funding obligations, and expert opinions in determining the various rates used to estimate pension expense. The Company also considers the Citigroup Liability Index and market interest rates in setting the appropriate discount rate. In addition, the Company reviews expected inflationary and merit increases to compensation in determining the rate of increase in future compensation levels.  In 2006, the Pension Protection Act of 2006 was enacted, which established certain criteria to ensure that pension plan assets are sufficient to satisfy future obligations.  The law identifies at risk plans and applies stricter funding requirements to help stabilize at risk plans.  The Company has determined that the law does not materially affect the Company’s funding obligations with respect to its benefit plans.

The Company’s policy on the allowance for loan and lease losses and pension accounting is disclosed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements. A more detailed description of the allowance for loan and lease losses is included in the “Risk Management” section of this Form 10-K.  All significant pension accounting assumptions and detail is disclosed in Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements. All accounting policies are important, and as such, the Company encourages the reader to review each of the policies included in Note 1 to obtain a better understanding on how the Company’s financial performance is reported.


Certain statements in this filing and future filings by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission, in the Company’s press releases or other public or shareholder communications, or in oral statements made with the approval of an authorized executive officer, contain forward-looking statements, as defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act. These statements may be identified by the use of phrases such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “forecasts,”  “projects,”  “will,”  “can,” “would,” “should,” “could,” “may,” or other similar terms. There are a number of factors, many of which are beyond the Company’s control that could cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by the forward looking statements. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from those contemplated by such forward-looking statements include, among others, the following possibilities:

• Local, regional, national and international economic conditions and the impact they may have on the Company and its customers and the Company’s assessment of that impact.
• Changes in the level of non-performing assets and charge-offs.
• Changes in estimates of future reserve requirements based upon the periodic review thereof under relevant regulatory and accounting requirements.
• The effects of and changes in trade and monetary and fiscal policies and laws, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve Board.
• Inflation, interest rate, securities market and monetary fluctuations.
• Political instability.

• Acts of war or terrorism.
• The timely development and acceptance of new products and services and perceived overall value of these products and services by users.
• Changes in consumer spending, borrowings and savings habits.
• Changes in the financial performance and/or condition of the Company’s borrowers.
• Technological changes.
• Acquisitions and integration of acquired businesses.
• The ability to increase market share and control expenses.
• Changes in the competitive environment among financial holding companies.
• The effect of changes in laws and regulations (including laws and regulations concerning taxes, banking, securities and insurance) with which the Company and its subsidiaries must comply.
• The effect of changes in accounting policies and practices, as may be adopted by the regulatory agencies, as well as the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, the Financial Accounting Standards Board and other accounting standard setters.
• Changes in the Company’s organization, compensation and benefit plans.
• The costs and effects of legal and regulatory developments including the resolution of legal proceedings or regulatory or other governmental inquiries and the results of regulatory examinations or reviews.
• Greater than expected costs or difficulties related to the integration of new products and lines of business.
• The Company’s success at managing the risks involved in the foregoing items.

The Company cautions readers not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made, and to advise readers that various factors, including but not limited to those described above, could affect the Company’s financial performance and could cause the Company’s actual results or circumstances for future periods to differ materially from those anticipated or projected.

Except as required by law, the Company does not undertake, and specifically disclaims any obligations to, publicly release any revisions that may be made to any forward-looking statements to reflect statements to the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events or circumstances after the date of such statements.


The Company had net income of $58.4 million or $1.80 per diluted share for 2008, up 15.9% from net income of $50.3 million or $1.51 per diluted share for 2007.  Net interest income increased $21.0 million or 12.7% in 2008 compared to 2007.  The increase in net interest income resulted from decreases in rates paid on interest bearing deposits and liabilities in 2008 as compared with 2007.  In addition, average earning assets increased $132.7 million, or 2.8%, in 2008 over 2007.  The provision for loan and lease losses totaled $27.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, down $2.9 million, or 9.7%, from $30.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2007.  Noninterest income increased $12.0 million or 20.1% compared to 2007.  The increase in noninterest income was driven primarily by an increase in service charges on deposit accounts and ATM and debit card fees, which collectively increased $6.0 million due to various initiatives in 2008.  Also included in noninterest income for 2008 were net securities gains totaling $1.5 million compared to net securities gains of $2.1 million in 2007. Excluding net security gains and losses, total noninterest income increased 21.9% in 2008 compared with 2007.  Noninterest expense increased $24.3 million, or 19.8%, in 2008 compared with 2007.  The increase in noninterest expense was due to several factors including increases in salaries and employee benefits, occupancy, equipment and data processing and communications expenses, professional fees and outside services, loan collection and other real estate owned expenses, and other operating expenses.   Please refer to “NONINTEREST EXPENSE” on page 42 for additional information.

The Company had net income of $50.3 million or $1.51 per diluted share for 2007, down 10.0% from net income of $55.9 million or $1.64 per diluted share for 2006.  The provision for loan and lease losses totaled $30.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2007, up $20.7, or 220.3%, from $9.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2006.  This increase was due in large part to increases in nonperforming loans and charge-offs in 2007.  The increase in the provision for loan and lease losses was offset by several factors.  Net interest income increased $1.2 million or 0.7% in 2007 compared to 2006.  The increase in net interest income resulted mainly from an increase in average earning assets of $171.4 million, or 3.7% to $4.7 billion in 2007, driven by a 3.7% increase in average loans and leases for the period. Noninterest income increased $11.1 million or 22.8% compared to 2006. The increase in noninterest income was driven primarily by an increase in service charges on deposit accounts from fee initiatives during the year.  Also included in noninterest income for 2007 were net securities gains totaling $2.1 million compared to net securities losses of $0.9 million in 2006. Excluding net security gains and losses, total noninterest income increased 16.3% in 2007 compared with 2006. Noninterest expense remained relatively stable from $123.0 million in 2006 to $122.5 million in 2007.


While the Company reported record earnings for 2008, it anticipates that current global economic conditions and challenges in the financial services industry may negatively impact earnings in 2009. In particular, the Company currently expects that in 2009:

• premiums paid to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation will increase significantly;

• pension and postretirement expenses will increase significantly;

• revenue from Federal Home Loan Bank dividends may decrease significantly;

• payments representing interest and principal on currently outstanding loans and investments will most likely be reinvested at rates that are lower than the rates on currently outstanding loans and investments; and

• the economy may have an adverse affect on asset quality indicators and the provision for loan and lease losses, and therefore credit costs, which have trended higher in recent years, are not expected to decline until economic indicators improve.

Due to current uncertainty in economic conditions and the financial services industry in general, it is particularly difficult to estimate certain revenues, expenses and other related matters.  There may be factors in addition to those identified above that impact 2009 results.  For a discussion of risks and uncertainties that could impact the Company’s future results, see ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS.


The Company attempts to maximize net interest income, and net income, while actively managing its liquidity and interest rate sensitivity through the mix of various core deposit products and other sources of funds, which in turn fund an appropriate mix of earning assets. The changes in the Company’s asset mix and sources of funds, and the resultant impact on net interest income, on a fully tax equivalent basis, are discussed below.  The following table includes the condensed consolidated average balance sheet, an analysis of interest income/expense and average yield/rate for each major category of earning assets and interest bearing liabilities on a taxable equivalent basis. Interest income for tax-exempt securities and loans and leases has been adjusted to a taxable-equivalent basis using the statutory Federal income tax rate of 35%.

Table 1. Average Balances and Net Interest Income
(Dollars in thousands)
Short-term interest bearing accounts
  $ 9,190     $ 186       2.03 %   $ 8,395     $ 419       4.99 %   $ 8,116     $ 395       4.87 %
Securities available for sale 1
    1,113,810       56,841       5.10       1,134,837       57,290       5.05       1,110,405       53,992       4.86  
Securities held to maturity 1
    149,775       8,430       5.63       144,518       8,901       6.16       115,636       7,071       6.11  
Investment in FRB and FHLB Banks
    39,735       2,437       6.13       34,022       2,457       7.22       39,437       2,076       5.26  
Loans and leases 2
    3,567,299       233,016       6.53       3,425,318       243,317       7.10       3,302,080       230,800       6.99  
Total earning assets
    4,879,809       300,910       6.17       4,747,090       312,384       6.58       4,575,674       294,334       6.43  
Other non-interest earning assets
    384,846                       362,497                       349,396                  
Total assets
  $ 5,264,655                     $ 5,109,587                     $ 4,925,070                  
Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
Money market deposit accounts
  $ 778,477       14,373       1.85 %   $ 663,532       22,402       3.38 %   $ 543,323       18,050       3.32 %
NOW deposit accounts
    485,014       4,133       0.85       449,122       3,785       0.84       443,339       3,297       0.74  
Savings deposits
    467,572       2,161       0.46       485,562       4,299       0.89       532,788       4,597       0.86  
Time deposits
    1,507,966       55,465       3.68       1,675,116       76,088       4.54       1,534,556       61,854       4.03  
Total interest-bearing deposits
    3,239,029       76,132       2.35       3,273,332       106,574       3.26       3,054,006       87,798       2.87  
Short-term borrowings
    223,830       4,847       2.17       280,162       12,943       4.62       331,255       15,448       4.66  
Trust preferred debentures
    75,422       4,747       6.29       75,422       5,087       6.74       70,055       4,700       6.71  
Long-term debt
    563,460       22,642       4.02       384,017       16,486       4.29       414,976       17,063       4.11  
Total interest-bearing liabilities
    4,101,741       108,368       2.64       4,012,933       141,090       3.52       3,870,292       125,009       3.23  
Demand deposits
    682,656                       639,423                       614,055                  
Other non-interest-bearing liabilities
    68,156                       57,932                       54,170                  
Stockholders’ equity
    412,102                       399,299                       386,553                  
Total liabilities and stockholders’  equity
  $ 5,264,655                     $ 5,109,587                     $ 4,925,070                  
Interest rate spread
                    3.53 %                     3.06 %                     3.20 %
Net interest income-FTE
            192,542                       171,294                       169,325          
Net interest margin
                    3.95 %                     3.61 %                     3.70 %
Taxable equivalent adjustment
            6,496                       6,267                       5,492          
Net interest income
          $ 186,046                     $ 165,027                     $ 163,833          

1. Securities are shown at average amortized cost.

2. For purposes of these computations, nonaccrual loans are included in the average loan balances outstanding. The interest collected thereon is included in interest income based upon the characteristics of the related loans.


On a tax equivalent basis, the Company’s net interest income for 2008 was $192.5 million, up from $171.3 million for 2007. The Company’s net interest margin increased to 3.95% for 2008 from 3.61% for 2007. The increase in the net interest margin resulted primarily from interest-bearing liabilities repricing down faster than earning assets.  Earning assets, particularly those tied to a fixed rate, reprice at a slower rate than interest-bearing liabilities, and have not fully realized the effect of the lower interest rate environment.  The yield on earning assets decreased 41 basis points (bp), from 6.58% for 2007 to 6.17% for 2008. Meanwhile, the rate paid on interest bearing liabilities decreased 88 bp, from 3.52% for 2007 to 2.64% for 2008.  Average earning assets increased $132.7 million, or 2.8%, from 2007 to 2008.  This increase was driven primarily by a $142.0 million increase in average loans and leases, which was driven primarily by a 23.4% increase in consumer indirect installment loans.  The following table presents changes in interest income, on a FTE basis, and interest expense attributable to changes in  volume (change in average balance multiplied by prior year rate), changes in rate (change in rate multiplied by prior year volume), and the net change in net interest  income.  The net change attributable to the combined impact of volume and rate has been allocated to each in proportion to the absolute dollar amounts of change.

Table 2. Analysis of Changes in Taxable Equivalent Net Interest Income
Increase (Decrease)
Increase (Decrease)
2008 over 2007
2007 over 2006
(In thousands)
Short-term interest-bearing accounts
  $ 44     $ (276 )   $ (232 )   $ 14     $ 10     $ 24  
Securities available for sale
    (1,021 )     222       (799 )     1,205       2,093       3,298  
Securities held to maturity
    228       (538 )     (310 )     1,779       51       1,830  
Investment in FRB and FHLB Banks
    380       (400 )     (20 )     (314 )     695       381  
Loans and leases
    10,908       (21,250 )     (10,342 )     8,711       3,806       12,517  
Total interest income
    10,539       (22,242 )     (11,703 )     11,184       6,866       18,050  
Money market deposit accounts
    4,969       (12,998 )     (8,029 )     4,054       298       4,352  
NOW deposit accounts